Bury the past, move into the future

A sermon for Proper 25

Deuteronomy 34:1-12, Psalm 90:1-6, 13-17, 1 Thessalonians 2:1-8, Matthew 22:34-46

Last week, we left Moses in a crack in the mountain side, as God passes by. Today we are at the very end of Deuteronomy. Wait a minute, what happened to the rest of Exodus, and all of Leviticus and Numbers and the first 33 chapters of Deuteronomy? We seem to have gone from a semi continuous reading quick shallow dips. In previous weeks, I’ve tried to at least fill in the gaps by at least naming the stories not included. Most of 3 books, I don’t think so. As much as I dislike skipping verse, chapter and book to be honest, it’s very hard to cover the entire Old Testament in 78 sessions, that’s three years of the season after Pentecost. There are some 187 chapters in the Pentateuch alone. But I’m side tracked before we even get started.

The verses of Deuteronomy we heard this morning are often sub titled, the Death of Moses. At the ripe age of 120, with clear vision and a vigorous pace, Moses ascends to the top of Mnt. Nebo, also known as Pisgah. (Harrelson) The God shows him all the lands he promised to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. We are not told what Moses thought, in fact Moses is silent. We are told, God tells Moses, he will not enter the Promised Land. We are told that Moses dies there; ~ at God’s command. Young’s Literal Translation and King James goes on to say God buries Moses opposite Beth-peor and no one knows where that is to this day. The passage ends with a glorious epitaph:

Never since has there arisen a prophet in Israel like Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face. (Deut. 34:6)

To some extent, it doesn’t seem fair that Moses isn’t allowed to go with Israel into the Promised Land. Other books hint at reasons; but Deuteronomy is silent as to why, and I believe that it is important to take the passage as written because Deuteronomy is written from the prophetic perspective, while others are written from priestly perspective. Remember these books are written about the 7th century BCE and there was some tension between the Prophets and Temple Priests. Taking what is written here, for undisclosed divine reasons it’s time for Moses to die. That God buries Moses reveals a divine honor that is also attested to in the epitaph. From my perspective Moses is buried with high divine honors.

There is another bit here that is important to pay attention to. Moses lays hands on Joshua, who is full of the spirit of wisdom. Joshua is to essentially be the prime minister for Israel as they enter the Promised Land. Patrick Miller writes that the Hebrew text is emphatically clear “it is the Lord who goes over before Israel and will be with Israel” (Deut. 31:3, 7-8) (Miller 5545) God is leading, not Joshua.

This is a transition point. Israel is at the edge of the Promised Land, the Divine promise is ready to be fulfilled. Perhaps as important, they are prepared. They have the experiences of God freeing them from slavery in Egypt, God’s presence with them in the wilderness. They have the Tabernacle, the nomadic home of God in their midst; and more importantly they have Torah, the Law, given through Moses to Israel, to guide them. Miller notes it is important that the Torah is complete, without the land. Torah reveals God’s promises, reveals God’s intentions, reveals the way, and what Israel must do to realize the promise. Torah offers the land, shows the way into the land, but ~ it does not guarantee it. (5546) For me, the implication is Israel has her part to faithfully do before they fully live in the Promised Land.

The rest of the Old Testament is the story of how they do. You know enough to know, they have a hard time of it. You might say they were unable to fully live into the promise. As Christians we believe God’s response to this is to become the incarnate presence among us as Jesus, and secure the fullness of the divine promise, for all of us, for all creation.

In a very real way we, as has every God fearing community since Israel left Nebo, stand in exactly the same place. God, through Moses and Torah, through Jesus, through the Spirit has revealed the divine promise, the divine intent, the way, and what we must do to live fully into the promise Gods make to all creation through Jesus. We are also prepared; we have the history of vast experiences and the knowledge of God in our midst to call upon as we seek our way forward. We have similar resources to face a similar challenge. Israel needed to leave their past behind. They needed to leave Moses buried, in order to follow God in their midst, into the fullness of a promised future. That Moses is cited by name in the New Testament, and that Jesus is often over against Moses reveals how difficult it is to leave the beloved and revered, be it persons, stuff or traditions, buried.

We are on plains of Moab. The Promised Land, in whatever fashion that may be, lays before us. We cannot see it, but neither could Israel, remember its only Moses who is at Pisgah, atop Nebo, with the vast vista stretching out before him. As fuzzy as it may be, we know the promise is here. What’s hard ~ is to bury the past, so we can move into the promised future.

We know God is in our midst. We pray the graciousness of the LORD our God may be upon us; prosper the work of our hands; prosper our handiwork.


References

Harrelson, Walter J. The New Interpreters’ Study Bible. Abingdon Press, 2003. E-book.

Miller, Patrick. Interpretation, Deuteronomy. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1990.

What do we expect to see?

A sermon for Proper 24

Exodus 33:12-23, Psalm 99, 1 Thessalonians 1:1-10, Matthew 22:15-22

At lunch the other day, I was at table with Susan Inman a candidate for Secretary of State. I did not know who she was, until we were breaking up. Only then did I realize the depth of her earlier comment “I’m so ready for election season to be over.” I gather she was talking about the frenetic pace of running for state wide elected office. I’m also ready for the election season to be over, though it’s because I’m oh so tired of commercials. Angie and I’ve seen them so often we recognize them before they really get started and rush for the mute button. As tired as I am, I decided to go to last Tuesday evening’s candidate forum. There were no surprises. Plenty of avoid the question answers. Plenty of implications about something else answers. A couple of clear to the point concise answers. And one that hit the spot; although I don’t recall who; the question was something like “What one thing do citizens need?” After a bit of rambling around, the candidate said “Hope.”

The answer is spot on. In troubled times, and these are complicated times, and there are troubles aplenty to be dealt with, all of us, as individuals and as a community, need hope. To lose hope, is to begin the journey to fanaticism.  Karoline Lewis writes:

We know well the triad, “faith, hope, and love” that gloriously rounds out Paul’s chapter on Christian love in 1 Corinthians 13.  …  [note] the order in 1 Thessalonians — faith, love, and hope. The Corinthians need some lovin’.  … the Thessalonians? Their loved ones are dying and Paul said, that Jesus would return in their lifetime. Now what? What happens to those who have died? The Thessalonians need hope. Big time. (Lewis)

They aren’t the first people in the bible to need hope.

Last week, we left Israel in what seems like an okay place. Moses had talked God out of “consuming them.” However, when Moses gets off the mountain and sees what they are up to Moses’ blood boils over. He angrily confronts Aaron who simply says “Well yeah, they gave me gold, I threw it in the fire, and this calf popped out!” Then Moses sees the people running wild, he calls for all those on God’s side to assemble. The sons of Levi do, and before the day is over 3000 people are dead, slaughtered for their transgressions in the affair of the golden calf. The next morning Moses goes to see God, to see if he can make atonement, if he can restore Israel’s fellowship with God. (Holman Bible Dictionary) It doesn’t go all that well.  In short, God tells Moses to begin the journey to the Promised Land, an angel will be with them, but God will not, in part because his presence would consume them.

This morning we pick up the conversation. Like last week, Moses argues with God; he asks hard pressed questions, boarding on demands. He wants to be certain (Brueggemann 5818) God will be with Israel; because he knows that it is God and God alone who makes Israel – Israel.  (Fretheim 3031)

Where God is absent, particular forms of art, literature and social relationships cannot exist. In both eastern European communism and western capitalism we see the effects, though in different ways. In communist countries where the holy dimension of covenant was denied, social relationships became increasingly brutal and empty. Western free-market systems where God’s presence is constrained by consumer economic forces, human dignity fails and life becomes paralyzing and empty. A market society devalues persons who have no productive capacity and relates rapaciously to the environment. (Brueggemann 5839) Its only when God is truly present that any social system provide homes for individuals. And when we fear we are losing God’s presence, we resort to fear mongering. (Mathis) And we see this not only in church or religious settings but also political settings. I suspect it is part of the rising ideological purity that precludes any kind of conversation with any one who is not ideologically pure, as we define it. I worry such fear based ideological fanaticism is finding its way into science, which further addles our ability to see what happening in and to the world around us.

After getting assurances God will be with him and Israel, Moses asks one more question. He wants to see God’s glory? He gets a divinely complicated answer and partial granting of his request. But having been assured, there is life after the golden calf, (Brueggemann 5834) I wonder what Moses expects to see? (Jacobson, Lewis and Skinner)

All of us have reveled after one form of the golden calf or another. And we all know it did not just “pop out;” we are fully aware of our own duplicity in trying to manage the devices and desires of our own hearts. The morning after, as we seek to atone, as we try to put our relationship with God back together, when we go looking for God, when we seek to see God’s glory, to see God’s face, to assure us that life will go on, what is it we expect to see?

As for me; I don’t know! I cannot imagine size, nor shape, nor color, nor density, nor any other characteristic; except that whatever we see will convey the knowledge and experience of faith, love and hope.


References

Brueggemann, Walter. The New Interpreter’s Bible. Ed. Leander E Keck. Vol. Exodus. Abingdon Press, 2003.

Fretheim, Terence E. Interpretation A BIBLE COMMENTARY FOR TEACHING AND PREACHING. Ed. Patrick D Miller, Jr. and Paul J. Achtemeier. Vol. Exodus. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1991.

Hoezee, Scott. Old Testament Lectionary Text is: Exodus 33:12-23. 19 10 2014. <http://cep.calvinseminary.edu/thisWeek/index.php&gt;.

“Holman Bible Dictionary.” WORD – QuickVerse , n.d.

Jacobson, Rolf, Karoline Lewis and Matt Skinner. Sermon Brain Wave. 19 10 2014.

Lewis, Karoline. Dear Working Preacher. 19 10 2014. <workingpreacher.org>.

Mathis, Eric. Working Preacher Exodus 33:12-23. 19 10 2014. <workingpreacher.org>.

Remember

A sermon for Proper 23

Exodus 32:1-14, Psalm 106:1-6, Philippians 4:1-9, Matthew 22:1-14

It’s been devastating. Nothing, has gone as expected. Nothing, is as it should have been. Everything is gone; what was, is no more. What’s to be is worse than imagined, its unknowable. Shackled, he kneels in the ashes of annihilation; his bound shaman, marching out with other captives, falls to the ground; as he is crudely pulled up the Shaman whispers “Remember.”

For us, the last week has been about remembering. Last Sunday at 10:41 am Lilly Grace was born. I rejoiced in her birth; as I remembered her mother’s birth. Late Thursday afternoon we learned Michelle, Russell and Lilly Grace were at LeBohneur. Lilly Grace was not eating well, nor showing the results of feeding. By the time we arrive, she was getting fluids for dehydration, and IV antibiotics for as suspected urinary tract infection, and had a spinal tap, protocol to eliminate meningitis. Now it was time to intentionally remember. Even with some specifics, much was unknown, and generating all sorts of fearful imaginations. It was time to remember what was known; time to remember that in the midst of the unknown that in the midst of deep-deep fear you are never alone. It was time to remember that I, that we, that Michelle and Russell that Lilly Grace are beloved of God. As of Friday evening Lilly Grace was eating, and peeing and pooping. As of Saturday noon, her culture was still clear and a plan for discharge was formulating. As of this morning, they are home. It is still time to remember and give thanks for all the support and prayers; time to remember the once and future dreams of Sunday past, as fragile as they may seem. It is time remember.

This morning’s reading from Exodus, falls neatly into two parts: the making of an idol, and divine repentance. Both are stories of remembering, or not.

Last week, we heard the delivery of the Ten Commandments, and we left Israel at the foot of Mount Sinai as Moses goes to God’s presence for them, because they were so afraid of the thunder and lightning of the divine presence. In the intervening chapters, we read about all sort of laws and the divine instructions for: the Tabernacle, the Ark of the Covenant, the table for the bread of the Presence, lamp-stands, curtains, hangings, the bronze basin, additional lamps and oil. We read about priestly vestments: the Ephod, Breastplate, etc. We read about liturgy: ordination, daily offerings, incense, and so on. We read about a half shekel offering for ransom. Finally, we read about the calling of Bezalel and Ohiliab who are to use their skills to craft all God has given to Moses. There is a lot here. And all of it is given to Moses so Israel will remember that God is in their presence. Which sounds kind of odd, because one would think the pillar of cloud and fire, the crossing at the sea, sweet water, manna and dove and more water from the rock at Horeb would be easy to remember. You’d think they’d remember that Moses is on the mountain alone because Israel is terrified of being too close to God. Apparently not, after 40 days, that would be all the way back to September 2, the day after Labor Day, (Hoezee) Israel decides to take their future into their own hands.

So, they go to Aaron, Moses’ brother, and second in command, and ask him to “make gods for us, to go before us, because we don’t know what’s happened to Moses.” Aaron tells them to give him the gold they got from the Egyptians, as they were being freed from slavery.  (Fretheim 2972) He carves an image of a bull-calf, a symbol of Canaanite fertility, and an effort to control one’s existence, (Brueggemann 5765) and casts the molten gold around it. Then he proclaims “Tomorrow shall be a festival to the Yahweh.”  (Strong’s Hebrew, 3068) So, yes, recognizing other gods is a violation of the recently received commandments, and so is making an idol, but Aaron still recognizes that Yahweh is God; why else proclaim a festival to Yahweh. What is he doing? The phrase “to go before” is used only to refer to divine messengers, so maybe Israel isn’t looking for another god, but a divine messenger. (Fretheim 2973)

Perhaps Aaron is trying to split the difference, trying to please the people, and at the same time keep the covenant. (Hoezee) It’s sadly ironic because what Israel and Aaron are trying to do is exactly what God is showing Moses how to faithfully do. (Brueggemann 5767) Still, Israel is disloyal by confusing a divine messenger with God and giving primary importance to the messenger. (Fretheim 2977) And to push their action over the top they rise up in revelry, a self-centered celebration, abrogating an earlier God centered celebration at the forming of the covenant.  (Ex 24:10) (Brueggemann 5768) Thus ends the first of this morning’s stories of remembrance; this one all about not remembering, or self-centered warped memories, either way God is forgotten.

Suddenly we are on the top of the mountain with Moses and God. God tells Moses “Look at what your people are doing! They are a stiffed necked people. Leave me alone, I’ll consume them and make a great nation of you.” I know this this conversation; more than once I have said to Angie “Look at what Your daughter did!” She would have none of it, ~ neither would Moses. The next thing to notice is that this is a court room drama. God has file a lawsuit accusing Israel of violating the covenant, and the consequence is to nullify the covenant; (Brueggemann 5769) which is far worse than annihilation it is removal from God’s presence, exclusion from  God’s care and concern. (Fretheim 2982)

Moses rebuts God’s command. He will not leave God alone. First he asks “What sense does this make, you only just saved them from slavery?” Then he asks “What will Egypt think of you?”  (Fretheim 2987) Then he reverses God’s opening complaint “Remember your people, Abraham, Isaac and Israel whom you promised …” Reminding God of God’s unconditional promise, made to Abraham way back in Genesis 15, (Brueggemann 5772) raises the importance of God being true to God’s self.  (Fretheim 2988) Although nothing has gone as it should have; nothing is like it’s supposed to be; God hears Moses “Remember.” and repents (Young’s) of the divine intent. Consequently, the very people who forgot are saved, when by Moses’ prompt, God remembers. (Hoezee)

From here on remembrance is central to the continuing story of God and God’s people. Till the end of Deuteronomy we continually hear “O Israel remember and do not forget.” In the coming of the Divine son we hear “Remember.” In the celebration of the Eucharist we hear “Remember.” At every baptism we hear  “Remember.” (Hoezee) At the edge of every grave we hear “Remember.”

Everyone at one time or another forgets that God is God and we are not. It causes us and others all sorts of difficulties. Sometimes some of us remember and balance is restored. But always God remembers so the way to God’s eternal care and concern is forever available.


Works Cited

Brueggemann, Walter. The New Interpreter’s Bible. Ed. Leander E Keck. Vol. Exodus. Abingdon Press, 2003.

Fretheim, Terence E. Interpretation A BIBLE COMMENTARY FOR TEACHING AND PREACHING. Ed. Patrick D Miller, Jr. and Paul J. Achtemeier. Vol. Exodus. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1991.

Hoezee, Scott. Old Testament Lectionary Text is: Exodus 32:1-14. 12 10 2014. <http://cep.calvinseminary.edu/thisWeek/index.php&gt;.

Strong’s Talking Greek & Hebrew Dictionary. Wordsearch, n.d.

Young’s Literal Translation. Olive Tree, n.d.

Restraint and Respect

A sermon for Proper 22

Exodus 20:1-4, 7-9, 12-20, Psalm 19, Philippians 3:4b-14, Matthew 21:33-46

We all know the Ten Commandments. Don’t we? It’s a giveaway since Exodus 20 is the biblical source. Except we’ve got to deal with the second set in Exodus 34, that’s not quite the same; and a third in Deuteronomy 5 which has some notable differences. But there are still ten and we know them? unless your Christian tradition is different than mine. There are some five or six, different ways of counting; read closely, there is no numbering, (Sampey 2880) and several have multiple parts so just how many are there? In any case, there some other interesting bits you may not know, which I think are, if not important, then at least intriguing; and who knows, what follows may stir up some thinking, and that is never bad.

Unlike other legal codes of the day, and in the Bible, the Ten Commandment in Exodus 20, are grounded in covenant community (Brueggemann 5217) and creation rather than a judicial setting. (Fretheim 2761) The rare structural form, which doesn’t specify any consequences for noncompliance, (Plunket-Brewton) focuses our attention on divine intention to protect the covenant community, “against every kind of exploitative social relation” (Brueggemann 5224) such that, as Terence Fretheim writes: “to obey [the commandments] is to be what one was created to be.” (Fretheim 2762-2766) They call Israel, call us, to “match God’s single-minded devotion to them, [us] with a single-minded devotion to God.” (Plunket-Brewton)

It all starts with the familiar “I am …” we’ve heard from early on in Exodus, that should always take us back to the burning bush. Especially here. Remember God’s answer when Moses asks God “Who am I to go to Pharaoh…?” (Ex 3:11) God tells Moses “Ya’ll will worship me on this mountain.” Well, here they are, back on Sinai / Horeb, that Mountain, where God is.

The first commandment is to have no other gods. It doesn’t say there aren’t other gods, just that Israel, we, aren’t supposed to give them any credence. For ancient Israel the competitors were Baal, Ashtoreth, Molech, (Elder) and others, for us the competitors are most likely a political, economic, ideological, or some other predisposition that determines how we relate to each other. Much of this is encapsulated in the second commandment’s prohibition against idols. Listen carefully, there are 3 commands here:

do not make,

do not bow down,

do not serve.

In short we are not to give anything else any theological significance.  (Brueggemann 5237) Remember ‘theo’ means ‘God,’ so we are not to give anything god status. But there is another bit that arises from trying to capture the form of God; the attempt to locate and thereby domesticate Yahweh. (Brueggemann 5237) It also maintains the distinction between the created (us) and the Creator.  (Petersen and Beverly Roberts Gaventa) A similar principle applies to the use of God’s name.

The prohibition is not about using bad words, and this is not permission to be less conscious of what we say. The concern here is the connection between name and reputation, and we should not speak God’s name in any way that diminishes or tarnishes God, (Fretheim 2788) and that includes who or what we associate or disassociate God with. Secondly, God’s name is powerful, and we should never invoke divine power for our own self-centered purposes. (Brueggemann 5240) God’s name belongs to God, and so does time.

The forth commandment, is the middle, the connection between guidance concerning our relationship with God, and guidance to come about relationships with each other. But it’s more than just a hinge. Once again there are multiple instructions: work six days rest one day; and oh by the way, everyone gets to rest too: spouses, sons and daughters, animals, slaves, and the foreigners. And yes, it puts a divine kink in productivity models, because there is a divine limit to the use of people, animals (Brueggemann 5269) and the land. (Leviticus 25) Here the commandments are tied to creation (5260) God created, worked, for six days and rested one; God rests, Israel rest, we rest. In resting, in keeping Sabbath, we remember not only the rest, but also the creation, and not just that it is, but that we are creation’s chief stewards. (Gen 1:28) And note, there is no mention of worship; (5260), (Fretheim 2793) we still owe God a day.

Keeping Sabbath is more complex than we think, perhaps more than we’d prefer. The same can be said for honoring our mothers and fathers. To honor comes from the root meaning ‘to be heavy’ or ‘give weight to.’ It is not coincidence that ‘to curse’ is also means ‘to take lightly.’ We are to give weight to our parents; it’s very likely this is to ensure parents are properly feed after their productive ability is gone. Given the practice of Corban, declaring you’ve given produce of the land to the Temple, while keeping it, to avoid giving it to  your parents,  which Jesus chastises, (Matthew 15:5, Mark 7:11) (Baur 709) the necessity of such a commandment, is clear. Today, that biblical social responsibility includes housing, health care and all other necessities of modern life. Notes that these commandments are given to Israel as a covenant community; in other words they are commands the society as a whole is responsible for. All of us are responsible for each other’s parents.

In comparison to what we like to think about the Ten Commandments, this is all a might complex. Thank goodness we are to six, seven and eight; ~ except they aren’t just about murder, sex and theft. The linguistics of ‘kill’ and ‘murder’ are complex and much debated. However, the basic point that life belongs to God is not. In summary we are to respect life.  (Brueggemann 5277) Sexuality belongs to the community as a means of procreation and pleasure; but only within the bounds of respect and restraint; otherwise the enormous dangers over whelm the enormous wonders. (5278) It is another form of respect for life. The prohibition against stealing is grounded in recognizing the necessity of goods to a life of dignity. (5280) To steal material goods, is to diminish life. For the third time, respect life. R-E-S-P-C-T goes a long way.

In fact, respect gets to the heart of not bearing false witness. This is not about lying, which is still not a good thing to do. False witness, is a matter of communal confidence in the judicial system. A covenant community’s, any community’s “life is not possible unless there is an arena in which … social reality will be reliably described and reported.” (5281) Moreover, as God’s name is not to be used for our self-interest, neither is our neighbor to be use for our self-interest. And remember a couple thousand years from this story, Jesus will teach, that everyone is our neighbor.

One, two, three, and half of four are about our relationship with God. Half of four, and five, six, seven eight and nine are about our relationships with each other. And I suspect, if Israel, or us for that matter, had any propensity to listen all of them could be rolled up into the tenth: “You shall not covet.” Yes, it mentions specifics, nonetheless, the issue with covet is the “destructive power of desire” (5283) Because of the list, we associate it sexual desires, and frequently recall Jimmy Carter’s “lusted in my heart” line. However, in ancient Israel desire was primarily an economic concern. (5284) In a true covenant community accepting what one has as adequate is the norm. (5286)

And such are the Ten Commandments. Until we read verse 18 when all the people are terrified, concerned about the future, and all but run away. That should give us cause to remember where this is ~ more or less at the site of the burning bush; ~ more or less at the site where God gave Israel

  • water,
  • life

The Ten Commandments, and Torah, the Law, that flows from them, like water, that flows from the rock, are a source of life, for Israel and for us. (Hoezee)

Christians spend so much time, thinking, worrying, arguing about redemption, life with God, out there somewhere, sometime, we forget the heart of the prayer  Jesus taught  “… thy Kingdom come thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven …” which is life with God right here, right now. So yes, in the midst of our own fear and trembling about the future, we are called to proclaim Jesus as the Christ, and him crucified (1 Cor. 2:2) in the Episcopal tradition in the Delta in the 21st century, we are called to be the church right here, right now. A part of that calling is how we live with restraint for our self-centered desires, with respect for:

God, for life,

for each other,

for all creation;

trusting that God through Jesus provides the way to life right here right now, for ever and for ever more.


Works Cited

Baur, William. “Corban.” International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. M.A., D.D, James Orr. WordSearch Corp, 2004.

Brueggemann, Walter. The New Interpreter’s Bible. Ed. Leander E Keck. Vol. Exodus. Abingdon Press, 2003.

Elder, Gregory. Baal, Ashtoreth and Molech – God’s Old Testament rivals. 10 1 2007. 10 2014. <Ashtoreth and Molech >.

Fretheim, Terence E. Interpretation A BIBLE COMMENTARY FOR TEACHING AND PREACHING. Ed. Patrick D Miller, Jr. and Paul J. Achtemeier. Vol. Exodus. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1991.

Hoezee, Scott. Old Testament Lectionary Text is: Exodus 17: 1-7. 28 9 2014. 10 2014. <http://cep.calvinseminary.edu/thisWeek/index.php&gt;.

Petersen, David and Beverly Roberts Gaventa. New Interpreters’ Bible, One Volume Commentary. Nashville TN: Abingdon Press, 2010. e-book.

Plunket-Brewton, Callie. Commentary on Exodus 20:1-4, 7-9, 12-20. 5 10 2014. 2014. <http://www.workingpreacher.org/preaching.aspx?commentary_id=2244&gt;.

Sampey, John Richard. “Ten Commandments.” International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. M.A., D.D, James Orr. WordSearch Corp, 2004.